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Chickens for preppers: Important considerations

I wanted to put out a guide for preppers who are interested in keeping chickens or other poultry for long term food security reasons. This is a discussion of important concepts for improving self sufficiency in flock management, not a guide for basic animal care. Please add your thoughts/comments/additions!

1. Select the right breeds and flock mix
For preppers, I recommend going with a mixed flock of hardy, dual purpose breeds that are bred for egg production levels of about 200+ eggs/yr. These birds are big enough to make a good soup/stew bird when their laying days wind down and produce higher amounts of larger eggs than fancy and bantam breeds. You want a bird that can forage well, and safely manage all season conditions without heaters or other special care requirements. Popular breeds in the dual purpose category include barred rocks, Rhode Island reds, New Hampshires, orpingtons and australorps, among others. Hybrid production/efficiency birds like ISA browns/red stars can be added to amp up egg production. I also recommend keeping a couple hens of dual purpose breeds that tend to go broody, like brahmas, in the event you want/need to produce chicks without the aid of electric incubators and brooders.

2. Size your flock for your anticipated long term needs
Egg production varies by breed, age of hen, the animal’s health, and environmental/seasonal conditions. Birds under 2 produce more eggs than older hens past their prime, and the dark days of winter can dramatically reduce egg production on a cyclical basis. Even very high temperatures in summer can throw a bird’s laying schedule out of whack. This means that a very small flock of only 3-4 birds is unlikely to produce enough eggs for a family over time, even if they produce enough when they are at their peak. So if you want 3-4 eggs a day from your birds, you will probably need about 6 hens to consistently achieve that.

3. Buy vaccinated chicks from reputable hatcheries/breeders
Many backyard keepers buy, sell, and trade the chicks they produce at costs that are much lower than big hatcheries. The trouble is that most small keepers and breeders dont manage their lineages for health and performance (they just breed whatever rooster they have to whatever hens they have) and more importantly, they ususally don’t vaccinate their chicks for Mareks (https://www.merckvetmanual.com/poultry/neoplasms/marek-disease-in-poultry). Every year, I see backyard keepers on chicken forums looking for help with sick and dying birds infected with Mareks. Many times they lose multiple birds, and the surviving birds become permanent carriers (which means they will infect any unvaxxed new birds the keepers try to get to replace the dead ones). In my opinion, for preppers, it is especially important to maintain a vaxxed flock if at all possible because you don’t want to be losing your birds in a time of food/chick shortages. A 100% vaxxed flock also means that if you want or need to breed your own birds without access to the vaccine, those new birds will be safe. You also don’t want to be contributing to the spread of Mareks in backyard flocks in your region if you sell your birds to others, as that can destabilize the local food supply when you need it most.

4. Use a multi-flock/purpose 20% protein feed in anticipation of changing flock needs
There are a number of different bird feeds out there – chick, grower/raiser, maintenance, layer, etc – and it can be hard to know which one is best. I recommend going with a 20% protein all-flock grower/raiser as your standard feed for your birds once they are off chick crumble for two reasons. First, a 20% feed can be used at all stages of life and for a wide variety of birds – meat, layer, males and females, winter, birds in molt, birds without access to forage, turkeys, ducks, etc. Conversely, layer-specific or general adult maintenance pellets don’t have enough protein for the rapid growth required of young and meat birds, have too much calcium for male birds, and often don’t have enough niacin for waterfowl. This means that if you have your hens on layer pellets and then you get a rooster, now you need to switch feeds. Or if you get ducks, or turkeys, or broilers. You get the idea. Second, as preppers, you should be storing extra feed. If you don’t know how your flock might change over time, you want to make sure whatever feed you have stockpiled will work for everyone in the future, or else you could end up with hundreds of pounds of food that is poorly suited to your animals.

5. Plan on rotating in new layers to keep production consistent
Due to the natural decline in egg production over a hen’s lifetime, your flock’s production will dramatically decrease after a few years if you don’t keep resupplying it with younger hens. Many keepers follow the 1/3 rule: replace/add 1/3 of your flock size every two years to keep egg production high. So if you have 6 hens in 2020, that means you should plan to add 2 new birds by 2022. Older hens do continue to lay, just at a reduced rate, so if you don’t plan on culling older birds to make way for the new additions, be sure to make your coop big enough for a larger flock than you start with.

6. Have a multi-faceted backup feeding plan in the event of feed shortages
The obvious first line of defense for feed shortages is storing enough feed for your animals to get them through at least a couple of months without needing to resupply. Long term situations though, like a complete collapse in the supply chain, will require mutliple other backup food sources in case you can’t resupply when you run low. Fostering a healthy pasture environment for your animals to range is one important strategy. This means preferably offering your animals something more than the typical lawn, and adopting grass/property management strategies that maximize seed production and insect populations (basically the exact opposite of what most suburban lawn care seeks to do). But even with a good pasture available, poultry need supplemental feeds. You can make your own scratch feed by grinding/crushing a mix of dry corn and grains from your own food stores, and you can crush/powder cooked animal bones, eggshells, and crustacean shells for calcium supplementation. Kitchen scraps can help round out the diet. A mix of pasture, kitchen scraps, homemade scratch feed, and carefully rationed amounts of dwindling commercial feed is hardly ideal, but it should hopefully allow you to keep your birds alive longer in a true crisis scenario than if you don’t take advantage of all these methods.

7. Have a backup bird resupply plan in the event of chick shortages/shipping issues
When the pandemic hit, there was a run on chicks and hatcheries were overrun with a surge of orders (https://blog.cacklehatchery.com/the-pandemic-triggers-a-run-on-chickens/). But eggs hatch on their own time frame regardless of how many humans want birds and why. So the orders got backed up, important production breeds sold out, and many people had to wait far longer than usual to get the animals they did manage to order. Issues struck again just recently when problems with the USPS resulted in serious shipping delays, causing thousands of chicks to die enroute to their destinations (https://www.politico.com/news/2020/08/20/farmers-chicks-arrive-dead-usps-399372). USPS is the only shipper of live birds in the US. If they can’t get the chicks to farmers and keepers, then only people/businesses local to the hatcheries can get birds from them (and there aren’t many hatcheries). These problems highlight the importance of having a backup plan to restock your birds as needed. Keeping a rooster in a laying flock can be a major PITA but it has the major advantage of allowing you to make your own chickens without relying on the agricultural supply chain. If you live in an area where you can’t have a rooster, or if you really don’t want to deal with their general ridiculousness, you can still plan on hatching your own eggs by connecting with other local keepers who are willing to sell/trade fertilized hatching eggs or chicks to you (the pro of hatching eggs vs chicks is that they are cheaper and you don’t have to worry about disease introduction, the con is that hatch rates can be dodgy).

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  • Comments (16)

    • 5

      Thanks, this is great! We’ve been looking into raising chickens in our backyard, but we’re still looking at how to do that properly.

      Quick question: is there a reccomended max amount of chicken you can keep per sq ft? I guess what I am aiming at is: how many chicken would it make sense to keep in my suburban backyard?

      • 12

        Yes – there is a general rule of a minimum of 3sqft per bird inside the coop house, and double or triple that in any attached/fenced run. There are a few caveats to this though. I’d recommend to always give more space if you can. Smaller, more crowded coops and runs aren’t just a hit for the birds’ quality of life, they fill with poop faster, smell quicker, and need to be cleaned more frequently. Crowded conditions also tend to foster more rapid spread of parasites and persistent behavioral issues (like dominant birds constantly bullying lower ranking members who can’t get far enough away). Coop size also works in conjunction with how the birds will be maintained. Free ranging flocks can cram into smaller houses at night because they only sleep and lay in them. Birds that spend most or all of their time in the coop/run will need a much larger area.

        Right now I have 10 birds in a 5×10 (50sqft) walk-in coop/shed that I open each morning so they can free range (but I also live on a farm). If you are in a small suburban backyard and can only reasonably keep 3-4 birds due to space issues, you can always adapt your breed selection and bird rotation strategies to achieve a higher production with fewer birds.

      • 5

        Thanks! Makes total sense. 

    • 8

      Great overview! I don’t have plans right now to raise chickens but I was wondering why having a rooster is such a pain? Is it the noise? That seems like the obvious reason but I have no experience with this 

      • 12

        The noise and crowing are a big reason (that’s why many residential areas don’t allow them), but the bigger issue in my mind is their aggression. While some roosters are sweeties, many if not most tend to be aggressive to some degree. They have a nasty habit of chasing and attacking little kids, and sometimes even go after adult keepers. Being attacked (aka: “flogged”) by a rooster can be painful and dangerous, especially for young kids. They can easily take out a small child’s eye with their beaks or spurs. That’s why many people recommend that roosters be left to working farms and experienced keepers.

      • 3

        A few things about roosters

        You don’t need a rooster to get eggs from your hens, you do need a rooster if you want to breed from your hens.

        Roosters do not just crow at daybreak. They will be happy to crow at 2am in the morning, and throughout the day. I had one that would crow at response to dogs barking. We are surrounded by dogs.

        Roosters do serve a good purpose in the flock. A good rooster will protect the hens and keep order – pecking order is quite literal. You need to balance protection with aggression. I had a silkie that was a very good protector. I had no problem with him, but he did attack my border terrier (it worked, I never had issues with him and the chickens), but also my step father who he attacked from behind. I’ve also had a very aggressive rooster and he was scary. So much for orpingtons being gentle. Not all roosters will be good protector. I had one who was at the head of the pack, running from a puppy a quarter of his size.

        If you choose to have roosters or breed chickens, be ready to cull them. Do not dump them to fend for themselves.

        Also, here is a link to an article regarding grainger chickens

        https://koanga.org.nz/knowledgebase/thorny-croft-animals-knowledge/getting-your-chickens-off-industrial-grains/

      • 3

        (I’ll preface by saying @chicksnhens has a lot more knowledge about chickens than I do — and I really appreciate the article and will be changing my feed from layer to 20% protein! I also completely agree with @LBVs assessment.)

        About roosters, I like having roosters around. We have 5 acres and maintain about 20 hens and 4 roosters (we try and keep about a 5:1 ratio). Our birds free range all day, with the roosters shepherding over their respective groups they range far and wide. Our hens without roosters always stay near the coop. Roosters do sort things out if they perceive problems (which can be very subjective – lol) and do keep an eye out for the hens. For example, when eagles fly over the property, the rooster is the first one to see it and run under the trees with the hens following. 

        Maybe we’ve been lucky but we’ve only had a couple of aggressive roosters ever, and they are culled. And yes they do crow at random times all day long (and sometimes very early morning). 

        We also select breeds that become broody, then allow the hens to sit on the eggs — which of course requires a rooster also.

        But if you’re limited on space, have neighbors that aren’t chicken fans, don’t care about hatching out your own eggs, and/or aren’t willing to cull out problem birds don’t get roosters. 

      • 1

        I totally agree with you about roosters being aggressive. I’ve seen it myself.

        A few years ago, I was helping out at a friend’s farm when her rooster attacked me. I was just walking through the yard when he came out of nowhere and started chasing me. I tried to run away, but he was faster. He cornered me and started pecking at my legs. I finally managed to escape, but I was pretty shaken up.

        I know that roosters are territorial and that they’re trying to protect their flocks, but their aggression can be dangerous, especially for young children.

        The Chicken Chick® https://www.facebook.com/TheChickenChick/
        Chickens And More https://www.chickensandmore.com
        Chicken Raising 101 https://chickenraising101.com/

        If you’re considering getting a rooster, it’s important to do your research and choose a breed that is known to be gentle. It’s also important to be aware of the potential danger of roosters, especially if you have young children. If you have any concerns, it’s best to consult with a professional chicken keeper or animal behaviorist.

        Stay safe!

      • 2

        “A few years ago, I was helping out at a friend’s farm when her rooster attacked me.”

        Rooster self-defense tip

        This worked for me as a 6th grader across many rooster attacks on grandma’s farm. It probably works even better for adults. Roosters were not injured as far as I could tell.

        I noticed that roosters always ran towards me and jumped from a distance to attack. The distance and height of the jump were surprisingly consistent. I would just put a foot up so their chest would hit the bottom of my shoe right at the top of their jump. The rooster falls back and repeats the same attack several times so be ready to repeat.

        Be especially careful that you are blocking them, not kicking. There’s no need to hurt them. Your foot should be in position and stopped before they get there. And they should hit a flat surface on the bottom of your foot with no head contact.

      • 1

        You can try to get a rooster from more gentle breeds, but be aware that is no guarantee.

        Have had several Buff Orpington roosters over the years and one of them was a very aggressive jerk.

        He was quite tasty, though 😋!

        I keep a pair of goggles to wear while handling a mean rooster, and when attacked I grab him and put him on his back, careful not to harm him.

        In less than a minute he settles down and then I put him back on his feet.  Seems to make him kind of groggy, but it does him no harm.

        Expect to replace him this year.

        For folks who can’t free range, you might want to look into portable cages called “chicken tractors.”

        Very good for protection against flying predators.

        I also use an electric mesh fence for keeping out other predators, like dogs and bears.

    • 3

      This is very valuable. Curious if the supply chain issues around chicks has calmed down by now? Or do you think it might get worse as people prep for fall?

      • 9

        I just did a quick check on a couple of the big hatcheries’ websites. Looks like most laying breeds are still out of stock, so it appears like the shortage is still happening. Hatcheries do wind down production in the fall since winter isn’t a great time to raise birds, but there should be way more chicks in stock right now than there currently are…

      • 5

        That’s good to know and also distressing to know. Appreciate you looking into it!

    • 6
    • 5

      I really want to give this a shot at some point. Thanks for putting this together!

    • 1

      Saw this video of a rooster saving a chicken’s life from what looks to be a predatory bird. Just a thing to think about and consider.

      Rooster saves the chicken from attack from AnimalsBeingBros

    • 1

      Great advice, especially that last bit about hatching to reduce risk of infection. When we bring in new livestock of any kind we quarantine the new birds/livestock.